What advantages does proficiency-based grading have over the current grading system?
PBG denotes what students actually know and can do in relationship to specific academic standards. A PBG score or grade is not artificially impacted by penalties for “late” or “missing” work and does not reflect “extra credit” which may have nothing at all to do with the content being taught in the class (participating in a food drive or donating blood, for example.)
Will students still receive letter grades in classes? Is it merely that all assignments, quizzes, tests, etc. will be given a score out of 4, or does the student receive an overall score out of 4 for the whole class, or both?
Students will receive letter grades only in secondary courses and only on the report card at the end of the term. Students and parents should focus only on the scores for assessments all term long, noting in what standards the student is proficient or highly proficient and on which standards the student should be focusing and practicing because he/she is not proficient or is only approaching proficiency. The student always has the power to better assessment scores if he/she feels like they’ve gotten better at the concepts in the standard. It is important to know that under a PBG system, any student with enough time and support can score proficient or above on assessments which would then translate to an A grade if he/she so desires.
What significance does the 1-4 scale have?
An assessment is scored 1-4 in relationship to the standard or standards it was designed to assess. A score of 1 indicates the student is not proficient in the standard(s), not able to complete the assessment without the teacher’s help. A score of 2 indicates that, on the assessment, the student is approaching proficient in the standard(s) assessed. 3 indicates the student is proficient, and a score of 4 means the student has gone beyond proficiency and demonstrated learning of the standard(s) in a more sophisticated, complex, applied way.
What exactly does proficiency-based grading entail? Do assignments/assessments carry the same weight as they do currently, or is it purely based on assessments?
Proficiency-based grading entails reporting to students and parents on student learning at given moments in time. Learning is measured against the Utah Core Standards, what the state prescribes that students should know and be able to do in each course and at each grade level. In PBG, assignments are not “weighted” against assessments; that is a concept rooted in a traditional grading system. Some assignments might be scored as assessments; assessments are not exclusively tests but can be projects, products, group work, oral presentations, or work assigned to be completed at home. Assessments are demonstrations of student learning, and only assessments are scored in our PBG system.
What is the role of homework in Proficiency Based Grading?
Homework is meaningful independent practice which requires time and effort outside the classroom and has an articulated purpose tied to content standards, but is not included in the calculation of the grade. The expectation of teachers is that homework serves as a vehicle for feedback, teaching or relearning.
What is Decaying Average?
In Granite’s model of Proficiency Based Grading, a standard needs at least 3 assessment scores in order to be part of the calculated grade. The first assessment is weighted the least (12%) since the least amount of practice and instruction have occurred before the first assessment. The next assessment is worth more (23%), and the last assessment is worth the most (65%). This method advantages students by allowing the assessment with the greatest weight to come after all learning tasks, assessments and feedback for improvement have been provided. A student may choose to re-do an assessment if they feel upon having done additional practice they could demonstrate a higher level of proficiency.
How are levels of proficiency determined?
In Granite, there are four levels of proficiency. The levels are based on the core standards, where a Level 3 is the expectation of the standard. The District Curriculum Department specialists, with input from teachers, create the proficiency scales.
- Level 4: Student exceeds expectation of the standard by utilizing in-depth inferences and applications of the standard(s) in complex ways
- Level 3: Student meets expectation of the standard by demonstrating knowledge, understanding, and skills as described in the standard(s)
- Level 2: Student demonstrates knowledge of the simpler details and processes of the standard(s)
- Level 1: With help, student exhibits a partial knowledge of some of the simpler details and processes of the standard
Will students receive a letter grade in the course and how will the grades be determined?
Secondary students will earn a traditional letter grade in a course, and the high school transcript will look the same as it has in the past. The course letter grade will be determined according to the district proficiency-based grading scale. The grades elementary students receive will be a composite proficiency score of 1-4 that has been calculated by averaging all the proficiency scores for each standard in each subject.
Summative scores for each standard are determined by decaying average, a grading method that puts more weight on the most recent assessment score . Student grades will be calculated by taking the sum of the content standard final scores divided by the total number of standards assessed at least three times throughout the quarter.
GPA on a report card is calculated the same as it has always been.
What does a grade represent in PBG?
Grades are meant to show what a student knows and is able to do with respect to classroom content that has been taught. They communicate progress toward competence in subject standards and encourage the student and the teacher to act on feedback. Proficiency-Based Grading is designed to meet these objectives more clearly and thoroughly than a typical letter grade. With PBG, scores are consistently reported using a scale of 1-4 which indicates the level of proficiency on the standard.
What are Assessments?
Can state assessments be used in PBG?
State and Federally Mandated Assessments and Proficiency Based Grading
Proficiency Based Grading indicates the level of proficiency a student has attained measured against core curriculum standards. No longer does the percent of items correct indicate a student’s proficiency but rather the complexity of the task in which the student demonstrates mastery.
In the Proficiency Based Grading environment, a computer-based assessment must meet three conditions to be entered into the Gradebook.
1. The assessment must have individual items aligned to specific standards.
2. There must be three items associated with a given standard.
3. The items must have a proficiency level, ie., below proficient, approaching proficient, proficient, or highly proficient.
Certain other assessments such as presentations or demonstrations by students must be aligned to standards but are judged by the teacher.
HB118, “Incentives for Statewide Assessment Performance,” creates an exception to the prohibition against using results from assessments mandated by the Federal Government, State Government or delivered by a State provided system in student grading (see UCA 53E-4-303). However, while State and Federal assessments are aligned to core standards in general, the results are not associated by specific core standards nor are proficiency levels assigned. For that reason, Federal and State mandated assessments cannot be “pushed to gradebook” as district, common and classroom formative assessments administered on SchoolCity can be.
Are there any guidelines on assessments? (Do they need to be 3 different types or all the same format with small changes? Do they need to get progressively more challenging or does each assessment have all levels on it?)
Classroom teachers and PLC's will still have complete discretion on how to assess student learning. The type of assessment completely depends on what the teacher determines will provide the evidence needed to determine a student’s proficiency. It is certainly possible that the first of 3 assessments is less complex than the last of the assessments. It is also acceptable to have an assessment that has tasks or items that would show Level 2, 3 or 4.
What about the many ELA standards that really take a full year of practice for mastery (ex: informational essay) ? How will this present itself on the report card?
Report cards will show a proficiency level for each subject at a given moment in time. For standards that are taught in multiple grading periods, scores from assessments continue. For example, if a standard is assessed 3 times during grading period 1, the report card grade would include those scores. If the standard is assessed again (a 4th time) in grading period 2, the scores from grading period 1 pull forward and will be part of quarter 2. Students growth in the standard will continue all year long.
I’m concerned about assessment overload for our students. Will my student be taking a test every day?
The term assessment is broader than a paper/pencil test or quiz. The purpose of having multiple modalities for assessment is to is to allow teachers to use different tools or activities to gather evidence of proficiency. Assessment is customizable to the expectation of the standard such as observations of a skill in a PE class, or listening to responses to questions in a group. Some examples are observations, portfolios, paper/pencil tests, products, tasks, discussions, etc. and are scored 1-4.
What qualifies as an assessment?
Assessment is a broad term that includes any method a teacher uses to gather evidence about a student’s level of proficiency regarding a standard. Teachers utilize a minimum of three assessments to determine a student’s level of proficiency in a standard. This could include observations, portfolios, traditional assessments, products, discussions, projects, performance tasks, etc are all different modalities of assessment. As teachers determine how to assess, they select the modality that best fits the standard. Assessments should be separated by learning opportunities so that students have the opportunity to practice before being assessed.
What is an A?
Does the 1-4 scale convert neatly into letter grades? For example, does a 3 out of 4 convert to a C (75%), and a 2 out of 4 convert to an F (50%)? Or does it follow a GPA scale, with 4 being an A, 3 being a B, 2 being a C, etc?
The scores on assessments are not to be confused with the traditional grading scale you describe in this question. A student does not get a “3 out of 4” or “2 out of 4” nor is the GPA scale relevant at this point. Over a 9-week reporting period a student has opportunity to participate in multiple assessments in multiple modalities (not just written “tests”) that are tied to the standards for the class. Only those assessment scores are entered in the PBG Gradebook. Students can retake assessments if and when they feel they have become more proficient in the standard and/or can propose alternative assessments by which they can better demonstrate that they’ve learned what they are supposed to learn – even after the teacher has moved on to teaching other standards in class. Ultimately those assessment scores, which may involve decimal points – a student is nearly proficient, 2.7, for example, or just moving from not proficient, 1.9, for example – are averaged together to generate one score for each standard (1, 2, 3, or 4). At the end of the reporting period, those single standards scores are aggregated into one score at the elementary level or, in your case, a letter grade in high school: A, B, C, D, F. You can see on the report card grading scale in the attached handout (on page 8) how a majority of 3’s and 4’s on assessments would result in an A letter grade for a student.
How are students and parents going to respond to the idea that you can’t get an “A” without doing extra work?
Students can still earn an A in PBG by demonstrating in-depth understanding of the on-grade level core standards. The expectation is that students are not asked to do extra work, instead they should be able to show real world applications, make inferences, and connections that are deeper or more complex. Teachers may design assessment questions that assess each level of proficiency on a quiz, or a rubric may include information on how a student can show their understanding above proficient. Students or teachers can initiate conversations about how a student might move from proficient to above proficient.
Participation and Practice/Homework Points
Can I still assign homework? What is the role of homework in PBG?
Teachers can still choose to assign learning activities that students do outside of class. Homework is meaningful practice and is tied to the standards. Student homework can still be corrected in class. Feedback regarding student performance on homework can help a student know if they are moving forward in their proficiency in the standard. However, the score for the homework is not recorded in the gradebook; it is only for feedback and practice.
How does PBG address participation points in regards to class discussions, performances, etc.?
PGB supports assessments of all standards in multiple modalities, including discussion. Discussions, focused on standards, for example, provide evidence of student proficiency. Some courses have participation standards or oral communication standards that will be specifically assessed for proficiency.
How are students motivated to complete homework if it doesn’t count toward the grade?
Parents and teachers can help motivate students by discussing the purposes of independent practice/homework. Final grades should communicate learning that has occurred after opportunities are provided to practice and improve. The goal is that students can demonstrate high levels of understanding by the end of the grading period on the standards which have been taught. Some students master standards quickly and require very little practice, while other students require multiple opportunities to master standards with differing levels of teacher support. Parents can also help students understand that the role of practice in learning course standards is similar to practice in sports or music. The reward is the final game and/or performance; student athletes/musicians are not rewarded after every practice. It is important for parents and teachers to have these conversations with students as they begin to rethink the purpose of homework.
Late work/Timeliness & Management
What about late work and the impact of grading late work grading? How do teachers manage the many redos and reassessments? How do teachers deal with the influx of assessment at the end of the quarter? What if a student is doing homework but due to frequent absences miss all the assessments?
Proficiency-based grading measures achievement on assessments only. It separates achievement from effort/behavior, so there are no penalties for late work; however, teachers will still need to set a final deadline for work to be turned in each quarter in order to be able to get everything graded and entered. Teacher and/or school expectations should be clearly shared through a disclosure. PLCs can set up plans for what redos might look like, when students can come in to redos. Advisory periods, before or after school, and small group time are all possibilities for students showing increased understanding on a standard. It will be up to the teacher or PLC to decide what the re-do might look like (it could be a different version of the original, corrections made to the original, or something else entirely).
How is Gradebook changing to support Proficiency-Based Grading? What is included in the grade?
The new Gradebook is built to support PBG. In the new Gradebook, teachers will enter results of assessments that are tied to specific standards. A student’s entire grade will be based on performance on assessments. There must be three assessments for a standard if it is to be included in the calculation of a student’s grade. It will be important for teachers to emphasize with students the importance of preparing for assessments by doing the learning and practice activities.
Do you have an estimate of when proficiency-based grading will be fully implemented across the district?
Soon. Many elementary schools have all teachers participating now. All our junior highs expect to have whole school participation next year, and I expect our high schools will be largely on board the following year. Students and parents who’ve had the experience of working with a PBG teacher are eager for that to continue throughout the education experience. Parents embrace the system because they are clear on the standards of the class, have been told what proficiency looks like in each standard, and know exactly where they need to provide help and support to their students. Students feel empowered under PBG. They know exactly what it is they are supposed to learn and how to show they’ve learned it, and they know they will have multiple opportunities to demonstrate their learning progress as well as the chance to better assessment scores when they feel they can do better. They have confidence as they move forward to the next course in a sequence or perhaps to college that they have learned what they needed to learn to be successful in their next endeavor.
How will the Canvas platform work with proficiency-based grading?
Canvas was purchased as a learning management system, a platform to aid instruction through which teachers could share instructional resources used in class and make them accessible outside of class to absentees, a platform that would allow students to collaborate on work, a platform that would support blended learning and learning beyond the traditional seat time hours of a classroom.
Teachers may still use Canvas to build supports for courses, including learning activities and assessments. Tools inside Canvas such as rubrics and SpeedGrader are still available for teachers to use; however, scores from Canvas will have to be manually entered into Gradebook.
What options will students have if they fail a graduation-required course?
Students who fail can participate in credit recovery. In a PBG classroom, there may be a reduced need for credit recovery with students receiving a “1” for attempting assessments. A student who attends class, participates in every assessment opportunity and scores only 1, “below proficient,” on every assessment could hypothetically receive a letter grade of D- after nine weeks. A teacher who notices a student scoring 1, 1, 1, 1 . . .. repeatedly should address that student individually by either providing learning interventions or alternative assessments. There is really no such thing as “passing a standard”. A student is ‘below proficient’, ‘approaching proficient’, ‘proficient’, or ‘highly proficient’ in a standard, and the letter grade, based on scores that generate it, reflects only that.
What about students who transfer in during the year. How will missed proficiency markers be passed off? Will students be able to change classes if they don’t like the grades they receive in a teacher’s class?
Students are not responsible for the assessments that occurred before they were enrolled in the course. Teachers may continue to support transfer students to scaffold any learning gaps as they move forward with the course. The final grade for the course will only be based on the assessments and standards that the student was present to take. If necessary, teachers may need to do a grade override with the registrar.
Schools will continue to use their own schedule-change procedure with students.
College and Career Readiness
Is there any background information on why we push college and career ready, but are dis-aligning our grading system and have GPA when no one else does?
Granite will continue to generate letter grades and GPA for secondary students to ensure alignment with university entrance and scholarship requirements.
Will Granite students be disadvantaged for college admittance, scholarships, etc. Will students in a PBG classroom be more likely to receive lower grades than their peers in a non-PBG classroom?
Early indications from teachers participating in Granite’s Proficiency Based Grading is that there is no difference in GPA outcomes. Students who previously sought extra credit now seek opportunities to show increased proficiency. While universities and others do use GPA as one factor in admission and scholarship awards, they also consider course-taking patterns, test scores, extra-curricular activities, as well as service and community engagement.
How will proficiency-based grading help my student to be college and career ready?
Proficiency-based grading encourages students to take ownership of their own learning. It empowers them to improve understanding of a concept and advocate for multiple ways in which to demonstrate their knowledge and skills. It assures that final grades communicate more accurately to students and parents the degree to which the student is proficient in clearly articulated standards and objectives. Students will be less likely to need remedial courses in their post-secondary experiences or be incorrectly scheduled into inappropriate levels of courses.
Special Education and ELL
Will our SPED students be doomed to lower grades than their peers, even if they are working 2x as hard, but are still not proficient?
Special education students receive the same opportunities to show growth in proficiency on the core standards as their peers. Standards-based instruction, along with IEP accommodations and feedback on effective effort can help all students build toward proficiency. Effort alone is not part of a proficiency based grade.
Consider this case scenario:
A parent calls and complains that her son who is on an IEP for a specific learning disability in reading comprehension and math reasoning works hard in school and attends regularly, but has low self-esteem. He compares his grades to peers’ grades regularly as the teacher draws attention to students’ progress on assessments toward proficiency. He was able to get A’s and B’s on the previous grading system because he completed all of his homework and had a good attitude, but is now struggling and getting mostly 1’s. The parent is concerned that her child’s peers are getting 3’s and 4’s and her son is getting 1’s. What needs to be done?
- The SPED and gen ed teacher(s) need to meet together to look at the IEP goals, accommodations, interventions and plan for assessing and grading.
- In the areas where the student is receiving 1’s, what needs to be considered in terms of accommodations during instruction and during assessment based on the specific standards and in regard to the student’s needs on the IEP?
- The IEP team needs to make adjustments to the IEP as necessary in collaboration with the parent and the student to best address the student’s current needs based on the data.
- The teachers need to implement the strategies, scaffolding, intervention and accommodations in the areas of deficit and assess the student across all of the standards. The teachers need to capitalize on the areas of strength based on the assessment outcomes and continue to provide scaffolds, interventions and accommodations during instruction and assessment where the student continues to struggle.
- The teachers need to work collaboratively determine which standards will be assessed by the gen ed teacher, which standards will be assessed by the special ed teacher and which standards will be assessed by both teachers. The teachers always keep in mind that every special education student is a general education student first and needs maximum access to the gen ed class as appropriate.
- The teachers need to review the scores on the assessments collaboratively to determine if any additional learning activities and/or opportunities for additional assessment are necessary to show progress toward proficiency.
- The teachers also need to determine if any additional or different modalities for assessment need to be put in place to allow the student to demonstrate proficiency.
- If the teachers implement these components with fidelity, the student should be able to make progress toward and reach proficiency in areas in line with their peers.
Can we give SPED students a P grade rather than a D or D-? I think it is very hard to keep them motivated when the best they can do is a D-.
Typically, it happens when a student has not been enrolled long enough to demonstrate a grade but perhaps has previous progress in a like course that leads us to believe the student has “passed” a course; we also use incomplete sometimes to address this issue. There are also times when we apply P/F where students have had medical issues and have been unable to access all of the content, yet the school team believes they have successfully “passed” a course. Using P/F in cases where we are simply concerned about the student’s ability to meet proficiency could be perceived as a way to circumvent responsibility to provide access to standards and for the student to make progress and achieve proficiency in a standard.
These are both expectations under compulsory education-all kids are entitled to access to the general curriculum and all kids are expected to meet proficiency-that’s our goal for every student. However, with IEPs, we also have a legal way to make individual accommodations and apply specific interventions to help student make progress toward proficiency and to use accommodations during instruction and assessment that allow students to meet proficiency despite their disabilities. So, instead of choosing P/F, the IEP team should use the best practices to identify the student specific accommodations that will best meet the student’s current needs during instruction and assessment so that the student can show growth toward and reach proficiency in a way that is commensurate with his or her peers.
How should accommodations or modifications be applied during assessment to reflect the IEP?
- The same type and level of accommodations should be applied during instruction as assessment
- Communication is the key factor in enabling the team to determine how to implement assessment accommodations
- All personnel assigned to teach students with IEPs must understand and implement all of the accommodations consistently and as intended by the IEP team
- Teams may need to model, practice, or role-play the implementation of accommodations to be able to implement them with fidelity.
- Changing the criteria for proficiency is not an accommodation; however implementing the IEP components determined by the IEP team during assessment of proficiency is an accommodation.
- Failure to implement accommodations during instruction and assessment may prevent a student from reaching proficiency as well as constitute a denial of FAPE.
How should monitoring progress on IEP goals be aligned to growth and proficiency on standards?
- Progress on IEPs should be aligned to grade-level standards, reflect the student’s present level of performance and be measured regularly
- If there is insufficient progress, the IEP team should re-convene and revise the IEP to enable meaningful (sufficient) progress in the LRE
- Reports of progress on IEPs and general education report cards or progress reports should include overlapping progress data in some areas
- Informal teacher-made learning activities, probes, and checks for understanding can be utilized to monitor progress on IEP goals and to measure growth toward proficiency of the standards.
What accommodations or modifications need to be implemented for SPED students in PBG? What takes precedence, the IEP or PBG?
- An IEP is a legal document indicating necessary accommodations or modifications and will be followed as students work toward grade level proficiency.
- Determined by the IEP team including the general education teachers
- Need to be implemented consistently across settings including instruction and assessment
- All personnel assigned to support the student need to know and be able to implement the accommodations for the student
- When the appropriate accommodations are identified and implemented with fidelity, a student should be able to make progress toward and reach proficiency commensurate with their peers
What scaffolding and interventions are needed for SPED students in PBG?
- Scaffold needs to match individual student needs
- Scaffolding breaks the task is broken into its parts to help the student understand the steps in a process or the components of a concept to support learning
- Scaffolding might include: chunking, more practice, more opportunities, explicit instruction, different modalities to demonstrate understanding, use of technology; smaller, more defined steps with feedback, practice, error correction; opportunities to question and summarize; setting goals at the beginning of the lesson and reviewing (celebrating) progress frequently; emphasis on student learning outcomes
- Scaffolding students in SPED most likely will require additional scaffolding beyond what is typical in instruction for the areas in which the student requires SPED
- Scaffolding needs to be monitored frequently and adjusted as necessary
- Scaffolding show result in a student making meaningful progress on IEPs toward proficiency on grade level standards
- Scaffolds will include all the strategies listed on the IEP and may also include additional strategies that the teacher(s) find effective in supporting learning
- Interventions are specifically designed plans delivered through an explicit model of instruction and can include multiple scaffolds to teach a skill
- Interventions must be operationalized, measured, and revised as necessary
- Interventions need to be designed making meaningful progress on IEPs and toward proficiency on grade level standards
- Specific interventions should be designed specifically for the individual student and reflected in their IEP goals
How should IEPs be developed within the implementation of PBG?
- Goals must be aligned to grade-level core standards
- IEPs provide a means to develop a pathway from presents levels of performance to grade-level proficiency
- IEPs must include the appropriate services, supports and accommodations to enable the student to make meaningful progress on IEP goals
- IEP goals must be reflective of a student’s current needs and present levels of academic and functional performance
- IEPs should be developed by an IEP team that includes a general education teacher who knowledgeable is about the grade-level core for the area of need
How should growth toward proficiency be assessed for SPED students?
- The student is made aware of the goal for growth and involved in tracking progress toward growth
- Proficiency of the standard is set to the standard; proficiency on IEP goals is set to the IEP goal as determined by IEP team; both need to be assessed regularly
- Special education teachers in collaboration with gen ed teachers are responsible for tracking growth toward proficiency of standards and on the IEP goals in the gen ed setting and in the SPED setting
- Need to consider how individual accommodations are applied
- Can be assessed formally but also informally through district assessments, teacher-made learning activities, probes and checks for understanding
- Multiple opportunities for measuring growth may be necessary to determine a score
How do general Ed teachers accommodate SPED students on their proficiency scales? Do they have another scale?
Students with disabilities are provided on-grade level instruction with the necessary services and/or accommodations in accordance with their IEP or 504 plan to enable them to meet the proficiency for each standard of their enrolled grade level or course. There is not a separate proficiency scale. Teachers will use the IEP or 504 to determine how best to scaffold the work for special education students.
Our student body is largely ELL. How do we assist them with PBG?
Students who have been identified as ELL have additional resources such as WIDA English Language Development Standards and Can-Do Descriptors, which suggest appropriate assessments as students work toward proficiency on course standards. Teachers should utilize multiple modalities in assessing ELL student proficiency.
Competency vs. Proficiency
Will we actually hold kids back if they don’t pass? What do we do with students who do not complete class work on time and can’t pass proficiency requirements? So can you proficiency yourself out of school?
Proficiency is a description of what level of understanding a student has in relation to a specific standard. In education, competency is often referred to as “testing out” or “advancement upon demonstration of competency.” Students are still required to be enrolled in a course and have the seat time mandated by the state legislature. If we have students who are demonstrating Level 3 or 4 proficiency on standards, they will still be in the same class and the teacher will offer differentiated activities, just as we always have, to support their learning and growth. PBG does not “test a student out” of a class.
Citizenship & Life Skills
How will Granite’s citizenship policy support Proficiency Based Grading? How will we communicate with parents about the soft skills we expect from students?
The letter grade will only include academic performance on assessments. All other non- academic pieces, including behaviors are included in the citizenship grade. The citizenship policy for Granite is being reviewed to discuss how the behavior and non-academic components can be addressed in a citizenship grade.
What about the soft skills that students need for college, career and life? In regards to work timeliness, how do we make them college or work ready when work timeliness is required?
Expectations for behavior, quality of work, or study habits don’t change in a Proficiency Based Grading classroom. We still expect students to show up on time, be respectful, keep to timelines, and turn in work that is neat and complete. Soft skills are an integral component of every classroom that we that we continue to model, acknowledge and provide incentives or consequences.
Communicating PBG to Parents and Community
What responsibility will the district or school admin take to help inform parents? I’m worried referring them to a video, brochure or district website won’t be enough and the first SEP’s are going to be difficult.
The district is compiling multiple resources into a single website that will be useful for parents, students and teachers. Teachers can reach out to their administrators as well as the curriculum department for additional support for questions.
School networks can plan together and create parent information nights which can be supported by district office personnel in addition to administrators and teachers.